Grand Theft Auto: Vice City is a 2002 action-adventure game developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games. It is the fourth main entry in the Grand Theft Auto series, following 2001's Grand Theft Auto III, and the sixth instalment overall. Set in 1986 within the fictional Vice City (based on Miami and Miami Beach), the single-player story follows mobster Tommy Vercetti's rise to power after being released from prison and becoming caught up in an ambushed drug deal. While seeking out those responsible, he slowly builds a criminal empire by seizing power from other criminal organisations in the city.
The game is played from a third-person perspective and its world is navigated on foot or by vehicle. The open world design lets the player freely roam Vice City, consisting of two main islands. The game's plot is based on multiple real-world people and events in Miami such as Cubans, Haitians, and biker gangs, the 1980s crack epidemic, the Mafioso drug lords of Miami, and the dominance of glam metal. The game was also influenced by the films and television of the era, most notably Scarface and Miami Vice. Much of the development work constituted creating the game world to fit the inspiration and time period; the development team conducted extensive field research in Miami while creating the world. Grand Theft Auto: Vice City was released in October 2002 for the PlayStation 2, in May 2003 for Windows, and in October 2003 for the Xbox.
During the story, Tommy meets characters from various gangs. As the player completes missions for different gangs, fellow gang members will often defend the player, while rival gang members will recognise the player and subsequently shoot on sight. While free roaming the game world, the player may engage in activities such as a vigilante minigame, a fire fighting activity, a paramedic service and a taxi cab service. Completion of these activities grants the player with context-specific rewards. As Tommy builds his criminal empire, the player may purchase a number of properties distributed across the city, some of which act as additional hideouts where weapons can be collected and vehicles can be stored. There are also a variety of businesses which can be purchased, including a pornographic film studio, a taxi company, and several entertainment clubs. Each commercial property has a number of missions attached to it, such as eliminating competition or stealing equipment; once all missions are complete, the property begins to generate an ongoing income available for the player.
While investigating, Tommy meets with several people who offer him help: music director Kent Paul (Danny Dyer), who maintains connections with the city's criminal underworld; Lance Vance (Philip Michael Thomas), who aided in the deal and lost his brother in the ambush; Texan business tycoon Avery Carrington (Burt Reynolds), who in return enlists Tommy's help with several deals; and drug kingpin Ricardo Diaz (Luis Guzmán), who employs both Tommy and Lance. Eventually, Cortez begins voicing his suspicions that Diaz organised the ambush. Upon further investigation, Lance discovers this to be the truth and, against Tommy's advice, tries to kill Diaz, only to get himself captured. After Tommy saves Lance, the pair find themselves forced to kill Diaz before he can retaliate. With Diaz dead, Tommy takes over his assets and, at Avery's suggestion, works to expand his new criminal empire by forcing businesses to pay him protection money and buying out nearly bankrupt companies to use as fronts for illicit operations. At the same time, Tommy provides assistance to several prominent gang leaders in the hopes they will support his expansion, and helps Cortez flee the city with stolen military equipment.
When Vice City was released on mobile devices in December 2012, it received "generally favorable" reviews. Metacritic calculated an average score of 80 out of 100, based on 19 reviews. Reviewers liked the enhanced visuals, but criticism was directed at the touchscreen controls.
The port's visuals were well received. Destructoid's Chris Carter felt that they "[suit] the neon and bright pastel veneer", and wrote that the "new lighting effects and smoothed-out engine really allow the game to pop like it never has before". IGN's Justin Davis praised the updated character models, lighting, and textures, and Touch Arcade's Eric Ford noted that the "visuals are improved but not in a drastic manner". NowGamer found that the mobile display improves the visual enjoyment of the game, despite the issues with the original game. Tom Hoggins of The Telegraph identified some issues with character models, but stated "the city looks terrific".
Grand Theft Auto: Vice City was released for Windows on 13 May 2003 in North America and 16 May in Europe, supporting higher screen resolutions and draw distance, and featuring more detailed textures. A GameCube release was planned, but later cancelled. Vice City was bundled with Grand Theft Auto III in a compilation titled Grand Theft Auto: Double Pack, released on the Xbox on 4 November 2003 in North America and 2 January 2004 in Europe. The Xbox version featured a custom soundtrack support as well as improved audio, polygon models, and reflections over the previous ports. Double Pack was later bundled with San Andreas in a compilation titled Grand Theft Auto: The Trilogy, released in October 2005. The Trilogy was also released for OS X on 12 November 2010. For the game's tenth anniversary in 2012, War Drum Studios ported Vice City to several iOS and Android devices. The port is almost identical to the Windows version of the game, but with enhanced visuals and a customisable layout. The iOS version was released on 6 December, while the Android version was briefly delayed to 12 December due to technical issues. This port was also released on Fire OS devices on 15 May 2014. An emulated version of Vice City was released on the PlayStation 3 on 30 January 2013 via the PlayStation Network's PS2 Classics; another emulated version was released for the PlayStation 4 on 5 December 2015, upscaled to 1080p and with support for PlayStation Trophies.
A remastered version of The Trilogy subtitled The Definitive Edition, including Vice City, was released for Windows, Nintendo Switch, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 5, Xbox One, and Xbox Series X/S on 11 November 2021; versions for Android and iOS devices are also in development. Existing versions of the game were removed from digital retailers in preparation for The Definitive Edition, but Rockstar soon announced they would be relisted.
High temperature superconducting (HTS) coils are key parts of many AC applications, such as generators, superconducting magnetic energy storage and transformers. AC loss reduction in HTS coils is essential for the commercialization of these HTS devices. Magnetic material is generally used as the flux diverter in an effort to reduce the AC loss in HTS coils. To achieve the greatest reduction in the AC loss of the coils, the flux diverter should be made of a material with low loss and high saturated magnetic density, and the optimization of the geometric size and location of the flux diverter is required. In this paper, we chose Ni-alloy as the flux diverter, which can be processed into a specific shape and size. The influence of the shape and location of the flux diverter on the AC loss characteristics of stacked (RE)BCO tapes is investigated by use of a finite element method. Taking both the AC loss of the (RE)BCO coils and the ferromagnetic loss of the flux diverter into account, the optimal geometry of the flux diverter is obtained. It is found that when the applied current is at half the value of the critical current, the total loss of the HTS stack with the optimal flux diverter is only 18% of the original loss of the HTS stack without the flux diverter. Besides, the effect of the flux diverter on the critical current of the (RE)BCO stack is investigated.
A superconducting shielded core reactor (SSCR) operates as a passive device for limiting excessive AC current in a circuit operating at a high power level under a fault condition such as shorting. The SSCR includes a ferromagnetic core which may be either closed or open (with an air gap) and extends into and through a superconducting tube or superconducting rings arranged in a stacked array. First and second series connected copper coils each disposed about a portion of the iron core are connected to the circuit to be protected and are respectively wound inside and outside of the superconducting tube or rings. A large impedance is inserted into the circuit by the core when the shielding capability of the superconducting arrangement is exceeded by the applied magnetic field generated by the two coils under a fault condition to limit the AC current in the circuit. The proposed SSCR also affords reduced AC loss compared to conventional SSCRs under continuous normal operation.
A new facility for the measurement of AC loss in superconductors at high dB/dt has been developed. The test device has a spinning rotor consisting of permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array; the sample, positioned outside of this, is exposed to a time varying AC field with a peak radial field of 0.566 T. At a rotor speed of 3600 RPM the frequency of the AC field is 240 Hz, the radial dB/dt is 543 T/s and the tangential dB/dt is 249 T/s. Loss is measured using nitrogen boiloff from a double wall calorimeter feeding a gas flow meter. The system is calibrated using power from a known resistor. YBCO tape losses were measured in the new device and compared to the results from a solenoidal magnet AC loss system measurement of the same samples (in this latter case measurements were limited to a field of amplitude 0.1 T and a dB/dt of 100 T/s). Solenoidal magnet system AC loss measurements taken on a YBCO sample agreed with the Brandt loss expression associated with a 0-0.1 T Ic of 128 A. Subsequently, losses for two more YBCO tapes nominally identical to the first were individually measured in this spinning magnet calorimeter (SMC) machine with a Bmax of 0.566 T and dB/dt of up to 272 T/s. The losses, compared to a simplified version of the Brandt expression, were consistent with the average Ic expected for the tape in the 0-0.5 T range at 77 K. The eddy current contribution was consistent with a 77 K residual resistance ratio, RR, of 4.0. The SMC results for these samples agreed to within 5%. Good agreement was also obtained between the results of the SMC AC loss measurement and the solenoidal magnet AC loss measurement on the same samples. 2b1af7f3a8