In commerce, any negotiation puts buyer and supplier in direct conflict.Footnote 1 Although the exchange of products and services can take place either with legal contracts or as informal agreements promoting the welfare of all participants, the main characteristic of negotiation is the attempt of one adversary to gain more. Even in honest and open negotiations with a relatively free flow of well-defined objectives among all participants, there are still differences between the antagonisms of buyers and sellers. Each adversary is an independent decision maker at least in theory, capable of assuming responsibility for her own decisions. In the commerce of large lots of standardized goods, statistical modeling and the concepts of probability can distinguish between different points of view, recognizing and revealing the conflicts inherent in negotiations. Consequently, to ensure the quality of large lots, each party may require different contractual sampling plans which specify lot size (N), sample size (n) and the maximum number of defective parts (c) in the sample that still allows for lot acceptance, the formal symbols are PL(N, n, c).
Along the OCC, the pair of values LTPD and P(LTPD) signifies a single point. There are several configurations of PL(N, n, c) compatible with a given pair of values for LTPD, P(LTPD), each configuration producing different shapes for the OCC. The choice of configuration, in practice, is not as free as it seems. Technology and the commercial terms of the negotiation usually impose lot size N. The value of c usually does not flee too far from zero. In the end, only sample size n remains unknown. We discuss this question further in what follows. 2b1af7f3a8